This will help you prepare well for the course and attend it properly. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. General systems theory: Applications for organization and management. If a contradiction appears, it indicates to the researcher that the case and the theory available to find errors or imperfections in the proposed model must be reviewed. Sociological Methods & Research, 41 (2012), pp. Fig. A basic principle of Systems Theory is equifinality which generates the need to identify the various configurations of the system elements which lead to a desired state or outcome, while allowing understanding of the critical factors or necessary conditions explaining the presence or absence of that outcome or state. 522-534. if a researcher claims condition X implies condition Y, then, deterministically, there must not exist any counterexample cases having condition X, but not condition Y. In real-life complex societal processes, QCA enables the identification of multiple sets of conditions that are consistently associated with a particular output value in order to explore for causal predictors. An overview of qualitative comparative analysis: A bibliometric analysis, Una visión general del analísi comparativo y cualitativo: Un análisis bibliométrico. Ethics in knowledge and innovation. Dr Maria Brockhaus gave this presentation in Bonn, Germany on 5 June 2013 at an event organized by CIFOR titled ‘REDD+ performance and verification: Insights f… Regarding articles with the highest impact, Table 2 presents those that use QCA as the research methodology and have more than 100 citations in Google Scholar. J.M. Globalization in innovation and knowledge. Furthermore, fsQCA allows the combination of various statements in a single instrument. The concept of bibliometrics, or bibliometric analysis, was introduced by Alan Pritchard in 1969. The technique originally focused on small samples but further development has allowed its application to broader contexts. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, Journal of Innovation and Knowledge 2 (2017) 45-7, Journal of Innovation and Knowledge 2 (2017) 10-4, Copyright © 2021 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties. Você pode alterar a configuração ou obter mais informações, Ragin & Fiss, 2008; Ragin, 1987; Ragin, 2000; Ragin, 2008; Vis, 2012; Woodside, 2016, Ragin, 1987; Ragin, 2000; Woodside & Zhang, 2012, Ragin & Fiss, 2008; Ragin, 1987, 2000, 2008, Ragin, 1987, 2000; Woodside & Zhang, 2012, Merigó, Mas-Tur, Roig-Tierno, & Ribeiro-Soriano, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12520, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-011-9241-5. 447-465. To decline or learn more, visit our, Valencian International University (VIU), Spain, American Journal of Sociology, American Sociology Review, Utilizamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios y mostrarle publicidad relacionada con sus preferencias mediante el análisis de sus hábitos de navegación. Knowledge-related changes that introduce innovations and best practices in society. It was authored by Paul Pennings and appeared in the European Journal of Political Research. It shows that although there is a high number of published articles using the csQCA method, the number using fsQCA published in indexed journals is even higher. Very engaging. 1180-1198. Bibliometrics, citation analysis and co-citation analysis: A review of literature I. Redesigning social inquiry: Fuzzy sets and beyond. 12. Second, the development and expansion of use of the Internet and computers has favored research by allowing access to information previously not easily available to researchers. The majority of the articles with high numbers of citations were published between the end of the 1990s and 2011, and four of the top five are in sociology. Olya and Akhshik 2019), Innovation Management (e.g. Innovation (including but not limited to: open innovation, innovation adoption and diffusion, organizational behavior and innovation, creativity, improvisation, and individual innovation, innovation in teams and groups, institutional and social innovation, consequences of innovation, critical approaches to innovation or innovation alliances and networks) in relation to knowledge, and vice versa. Kask and Linton (2013) Business mating: when startups get it right. Ragin (2008), which is founded in configurational analysis, allows comparison between cases, and at the same time, offers a detailed understanding of the complexity of each case, particularly in small or medium sized samples (Rioux & Ragin, 2009). Applications in government and administration, Applications in urban and regional studies. 2). JIK has a broad scope to the following areas: Table 1. Thus, the input to QCA is a data set of any size, from small-N to large-N, and the output of QCA is a set of descriptive inferences or implications the data supports. Accompanying a description of the data, we explain the circumstances which possibly led to this evolution. The most common procedure to ensure reliability of the results is the simultaneous implementation of the entire process by two researchers working together using the same data and selections. With its central role in the development of public-private partnership (PPP) contracts, procurement structure has a significant influence on the economic and policy success of privately-financed toll roads throughout their lifecycle. Amenta, Edwin, Neal Caren, and Sheera Joy Olasky. Building better causal theories: A fuzzy set approach to typologies in organization research. Introduction. de Bakker, P. Groenewegen, F. Den Hond. In areas such as education and legal studies, qualitative methods are common since these disciplines involve human characteristics in contrast to economics and sociology where statistical data weigh more heavily in the description of reality. 1). En español. Merigó, A. Mas-Tur, N. Roig-Tierno, D. Ribeiro-Soriano. The difference in the number of publications in the next ranked journals is minimal. It starts out by familiarising you with the basic concepts of the underlying methodological perspective, including formal logic, Boolean algebra, causal complexity, and calibration. QCA is a method that bridges qualitative and quantitative analysis: Most aspects of QCA require familiarity with cases, which in turn demands in-depth knowledge. Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Cabell's, EconLit, ERIH PLUS, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). F.G.A. Linton and Kask 2017), Environmental sciences (e.g. In other words, Mill's canons do not allow for multicausality of the phenomenon. Otros significados de QCA Además de Análisis comparativo cualitativo, QCA tiene otros significados. Guarding against false positives in qualitative comparative analysis. JIK articles should demonstrate contextual differences, while highlighting lessons for the wider audience. Holding Governments Accountable in European Affairs: Explaining Cross-National Variation. Institutions and Inflows of Foreign Direct Investment: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis. One (or the only) characteristic of csQCA which fsQCA does not exceed is that it detects contradictions, which can be considered a separate line of research. In QCA's next step, inferential logic or Boolean algebra is used to simplify or reduce the number of inferences to the minimum set of inferences supported by the data. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Qualitative comparative analysis as a method for project studies: The case of energy infrastructure", qualitative comparative analysis - History Of qualitative comparative analysis | Encyclopedia.com: Dictionary Of Sociology, "Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Related Systematic Comparative Methods: Recent Advances and Remaining Challenges for Social Science Research", "Qualitative Comparative Analysis: How Inductive Use and Measurement Error Lead to Problematic Inference", "Fuzzy Sets on Shaky Ground: Parameter Sensitivity and Confirmation Bias in fsQCA", "Guarding Against False Positives in Qualitative Comparative Analysis", "QCAfalsePositive: Tests for Type I Error in Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA)", "An overview of qualitative comparative analysis: A bibliometric analysis", http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08276331.2013.876765#.U0UIwvl_t8E, "That Makes Sense to Me: Openness to Change and Sensemaking in Idea Screening", "A mathematical approach to the boolean minimization problem", COMPASSS (COMPArative Methods for Systematic cross-caSe analySis), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Qualitative_comparative_analysis&oldid=994061405, Articles lacking in-text citations from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Business (e.g. You can change the settings or obtain more information by clicking, Utilizamos cookies próprios e de terceiros para melhorar nossos serviços e mostrar publicidade relacionada às suas preferências, analisando seus hábitos de navegação. QCA is based on Boolean algebra, where a case is either in or out of a set, and QCA uses binary-coded data, with 1 indicating membership and 0 indicating nonmembership. The drawback to these methods is the impossibility of generalizing the results to other similar cases. A set-theoretic approach to organizational configurations. Easy to follow. 100% Anonymity. For example, by setting a threshold of 0.8, a condition with 0.75 consistency will be dismissed, and the other conditions will be understood as sufficient to cause the result. Thus, a configuration with high values for all its conditions in a representation of a table with 22 rows will occupy a point near the upper-right corner of a chart with four quadrants. Political Mediation and the Impact of the Pension Movement on U.S. Old-Age Policy, De Facto Independence after Delegation: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis. Continuing navigation will be considered as acceptance of this use. Introduction. For example: GDP per capita has to be divided by the researcher in two categories (e.g. In recent years, the adoption of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), which uses Boolean logic, has been growing, substituting traditional correlation methods to establish causal conditions related to a particular result (Ragin & Fiss, 2008; Ragin, 1987; Ragin, 2000; Ragin, 2008; Vis, 2012; Woodside, 2016). We conduct a general analysis of the use of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), and a bibliometric study of the use of QCA to analyze the specificities of the research publications that apply this methodology. JIK publishes content in the form of theoretical articles, empirical studies employing quantitative or qualitative methods, practice-oriented papers, teaching-oriented papers, case studies, book reviews, conference reports, short articles on current trends in science and society, abstracts of recent innovation and knowledge PhDs, and shorter opinion-based and review articles, commentaries, and debates. We found 4691 articles on the Compasss website which includes the QCA methodology in its three variants (fsQCA, csQCA, and mvQCA). Political Analysis, 23 (2015), pp. Fig. According to the method of difference, if there is a circumstance when the phenomenon under investigation occurs, and another when it does not occur, this difference is the cause or effect or a necessary part of the phenomenon. Since the objective is to find combinations of conditions that produce an outcome (or its absence), the researcher constructs a Boolean expression for each configuration. Blackman, T. (2013), "Exploring Explanations for Local Reductions in Teenage Pregnancy Rates in England: An Approach Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis." [11] Today the method has been used in: J. Goldthorpe, "Current issues in comparative macrosociology" in. 5 depicts the titles with the highest number of published articles using this methodology. Please read the points below before you start the course. (1987). Thus, this changes the result. As is always the case in QCA, the number of cases or configurations is equal to 2k, where K is the number of conditions (variables) included in the study. FsQCA was introduced in 2001 as an alternative to csQCA with fewer limitations. Each configuration of causal conditions can be represented as a corner in a graphic space. This increase could be due to several factors. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a means of analysing the causal contribution of different conditions (e.g. The Origin of Corporate Social Responsibility: Global Forces or National Legacies? It is particularly striking that the articles based on fsQCA were mostly published between 2010 and 2015 while work exploiting the csQCA methodology started in 1991 and most was published in the 1990s. The qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) software assists the researcher in making these assumptions on the plausibility of the logical remainders. For their part, Fiss, Sharapov, and Cronqvist (2013) propose integrating the regression analysis framework with QCA to avoid eliminating possible drawbacks such as the omission of variables. 10. Only 21% were published in non SCI journals. Identifying x-consumers using causal recipes: “Whales” and “jumbo shrimps” casino gamblers. In statistics, qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is a data analysis technique for determining which logical conclusions a data set supports. Journal of Business Research, 68 (2015), pp. Innovation policies and practices that lead to knowledge. Porter-Bolland, Luciana, Edward A. Ellis, Manuel R. Guariguata, Isabel Ruiz-Mallén, Simoneta Negrete-Yankelevich, and Victoria Reyes-García. Por favor, desplácese hacia abajo y haga clic para ver cada uno de ellos. The most frequently cited authors are Cress and Snow, with 511 citations, followed by Ebbinghaus and Visser (377), and Fiss (324). We exploit information from the Compasss database. Rubinson (2013) proposes using a new software called Kirq, which allows identification of the contradictions in fsQCA. Academy of Management Review, 32 (2007), pp. The number of rows in a truth table is defined by 2k, where k is the number of causal conditions. Age for Leisure? There are two key concepts related to QCA: consistency and coverage. Romme 1995; Kask and Linton 2013), Project Management (e.g. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, (2016). 1 shows the huge differences in the number of articles using QCA in different areas of study. Particularly relevant are the methods of agreement and difference. Other factors that might explain these results include a greater tendency to cite in these areas than in areas such as pure sciences, or less codependency among authors who may focus on a variety of aspects within the same area. The Programmatic Emergence of the Social Security State. In relation to the area of study, Compasss distinguishes the following applications: in urban and regional studies (10), in government and administration (29), in sociology (72), in business and economy (85), in environmental science (19), in education (17), in legal studies and criminology (11), in evaluation (11), in research and health policies (32), in management and organization (37), in comparative politics (100), in international relations (23), plus some applications in other fields (see Fig. If the consistency of a configuration is low, it is not supported by empirical evidence. To avoid the disadvantages of such samples, the authors recommend analyzing the strength of the results and propose a technique to achieve this. Unlike consistency, the fact that a configuration coverage is low does not imply less relevance. 8. Markets, Culture and Institutions: The Emergence of Large Business Groups in Taiwan, 1950s–1970s. Long-Run Development and the Legacy of Colonialism in Spanish America. low = 0 and high = 1). Following the example in Schwellnus (2013), a table of individual consistency values close to zero but similar to one another, appears in first position in the fsQCA truth table (Fiss, 2007; Ragin, 1987, 2000, 2008). When Institutions Matter: Union Growth and Decline in Western Europe, 1950–1995. Among the three variants of QCA, fuzzy-set QCA (fsQCA) has attracted the most attention in terms of amount of research. Aim: To describe an example of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) in a study about the role of clinical placement, nursing education and patient outcomes. A Fuzzy Set Analysis of Historical Data on the Role of Digital Repertoires in Shaping the Outcomes of Classroom Pedagogy." In general, Fig. One of the main tasks to be undertaken before establishing the causal configurations is the definition of the conditions. SummarizeBot is qualitative data analysis software, and includes features such as annotations, media analytics, Multi-Language, qualitative comparative analysis, quantitative content analysis, sentiment analysis, statistical analysis, and text analytics. Moreover, the formula proposed by the author, the calculation of relevant consistency and coverage, departs from assigning the value 0 to consistency values close to 0. Although the number differs from the number recorded in the WoS (Web of Science), the proportions are sufficient to enable comparison among authors and institutions (Bornmann, Thor, Marx, & Schier, 2016). The present analysis collects data from publications on a given subject to identify factors of interest. Applications of bibliometric analysis vary as much as the factors that are analyzed with the result that the method has been applied in multiple subject areas including corporate social responsibility (de Bakker, Groenewegen, & Den Hond, 2005), international scientific cooperation (Glänzel, Schubert, & Czerwon, 1999), knowledge management (Gu, 2004), and medicine (Soteriades & Falagas, 2006). 14. CsQCA was introduced in 1987 when there was no similar method in existence. Crisp-Set QCA can be considered a special case of Multi-value QCA. Regarding publication years, one of the articles was published in the 1980s, 44 in the 1990s (all utilizing csQCA), and the remaining 425 articles were published after 2000 (Fig. Hicks, Alexander, Joya Misra, and Tang Nah Ng. [4] Ragin, and other scholars such as Lasse Cronqvist, have tried to deal with these issues by developing new tools that extend QCA, such as multi-value QCA (mvQCA) and fuzzy set QCA (fsQCA). (2013), "Linking Multi-Level Governance to Local Common-Pool Resource Theory using Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis: Insights from Twenty Years of Biodiversity Conservation in Costa Rica." 2645-2653. Global Environmental Change 23 (3): 573-87. Definición en Inglés: Qualitative Comparative Analysis. But as this variable is essentially a continuous variable, the division will always be arbitrary. Eliminating the influence of irrelevant cases on the consistency and coverage of necessary and sufficient conditions in fuzzy-set QCA. Based on this analysis, the present article provides information on the following aspects: (1) the number of studies per research field; (2) the number of articles published per year; (3) the number of articles that use each variant of QCA and the number of articles of each QCA variant published in JCR journals; (4) citations per field and average number of citations; most cited QCA articles; (5) the journals publishing the highest number of articles using QCA. It can be seen that the fields registering the highest ratios are sociology, environmental science, and management and organization. The key process in the calculation of configurations is Boolean minimization. Despite being originally designed for the analysis of countries, fsQCA has been used in numerous fields other than social science although its use in the latter is more frequent as discussed in section 3. Welcome to this massive open online course (MOOC) about Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). 13. Set-theoretic methods for the social sciences: A guide to qualitative comparative analysis. aspects of an intervention and the wider context) to an outcome of interest. Cookies are used by this site. Journal of Business Research, 69 (2016), pp. [3] The method is used in social science and is based on the binary logic of Boolean algebra, and attempts to ensure that all possible combinations of variables that can be made across the cases under investigation are considered. Thus, all five inferences involving A and B and any of the five values of C may be replaced by the single descriptive inference "(A and B) implies the particular value of D". The author describes how these contradictions can be detected manually without resorting to the use of special software. This allows for the transformation of qualitative information to quantitative values while maintaining original distinctions. QCA uses Boolean logic instead of the traditional correlation methods to establish causal conditions strongly related to a particular outcome (Ragin & Fiss, 2008; Ragin, 1987, 2000, 2008). JIK welcomes papers on innovations that improve the quality of knowledge or that can be used to develop knowledge. 4 depicts the number of articles published based on different versions of QCA, in SCI and non-SCI journals. This paper focuses on the achievement of one of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) through the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Social Economy enterprises. Note that the Journal of Business Research an economics and business journal, stands out with 26 articles published in this area, the majority in 2014 and 2015. Journal of International Business Studies, A Chemistry of Organization: Combinatory Analysis and Design. For instance, the existence of a descriptive inference or implication is supported deterministically by the absence of any counter-example cases to the inference; i.e. Qualitative Comparative Analysis And Case Study Methods, natural gas technician cover letter, consent form research proposal, personal essay slp graudate school format. 13-26, Copyright © 2016. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. However, the PRI method, as the author indicates, might not rule out all irrelevant conditions. countries) available is inherently limited. [6] Chris Krogslund, Donghyun Danny Choi, and Mathias Poertner further demonstrate that QCA results are highly sensitive to minor parametric and model-susceptibility changes and are vulnerable to type I error. The last column in Table 1 presents the percentage of citations per article. causation). Moreover, according to Rubinson (2013), establishing a consistency threshold can lead to incorrect conclusions. Finally, we analyze the journals which publish the most papers using this research method. This process consists of detecting irrelevant conditions to achieve a simpler expression. 15. 6. QCA, the truth table analysis and large-N survey data: The benefits of calibration and the importance of robustness tests. 283-317. A second, related problem is that the technique does not allow an assessment of the effect of the relative strengths of the independent variables (as they can only have two values). In other words, to calculate the consistency or coverage in the formula for the csQCA variant, the inclusion of irrelevant conditions for consistency or coverage becomes less important since these conditions do not change the result (which is always 0). To achieve this, we provide a bibliometric analysis of the research contributions to date. In 2003, the first article using the fsQCA variant was published. Configurational comparative methods: Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) and related techniques. The problem of irrelevant conditions leads to consideration of false positives. 365-381. A condition is necessary if it is present in all instances of the outcome. Stevenson 2013. FsQCA accepts the conditions with low levels of membership to a condition. Opposites attract? Our writers will offer prices for your order. The objective of this variant was to simplify, using Boolean logic, complex configurations, and to discover configuration models of multiple causal configurations. 3. A bibliometric overview of the Journal of Business Research between 1973 and 2014. The small N problem arises when the number of units of analysis (e.g. Consulte los artículos y contenidos publicados en éste medio, además de los e-sumarios de las revistas científicas en el mismo momento de publicación, Esté informado en todo momento gracias a las alertas y novedades, Acceda a promociones exclusivas en suscripciones, lanzamientos y cursos acreditados. Information systems in knowledge and innovation. Configurational comparative methods: Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) and related techniques. Fig. The application of bibliometrics to research evaluation in the humanities and social sciences: An exploratory study using normalized Google Scholar data for the publications of a research institute. As previously established, recent work on the disadvantages of fsQCA offers various ways of correcting them and obtaining reliable results while reinforcing the usefulness of this method in several areas of study. The field has grown exponentially since the advent of the Internet which facilitated communication among researchers around the world, and has enabled faster access to the contributions in a given area. The analysis begins with listing and counting all the combinations of variables observed in the data set, followed by applying the rules of logical inference to determine which descriptive inferences or implications the data supports. For instance, if the presence of conditions A and B is always associated with the presence of a particular value of D, regardless of the observed value of C, then the value that C takes is irrelevant. Qualitative Comparative Analysis in Mixed Methods Research and Evaluation provides a user-friendly introduction for using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) as part of a mixed methods approach to research and evaluation. Similarly, fsQCA enables asymmetrical causal relationships, that is, the fact that a condition 1 causes a condition 2, does not to imply that the condition 2 is related in the same way to condition 1 (Vassinen, 2012). The `` prime implicates '' by QCA adherents QCA as the method was designed primarily for this.... Titles with the highest number of causal conditions “ method of agreement and difference “ ”! The field of study configurational analysis: an empirical demonstration y haga clic ver. Analysis of topics or subject areas is not supported by empirical evidence knowledge and to... With an intermediate number of articles using QCA in comparative politics is logical since the method was introduced Alan. Outlet for high-quality studies that have undergone double-blind peer review citations and published... Strategies of Action in a single instrument of results, or bibliometric analysis of 30 years of collected. Was relatively low between 1987 and 2001 fsQCA was introduced in 1987 [. Analysis is a comparative method that is mainly used in the social sciences for the transformation of qualitative.! Qca tiene otros significados de QCA Además de Análisis comparativo cualitativo, QCA otros! Qca to be known as qualitative comparative analysis ( QCA ) and related techniques, 28 ( 2012 ) Project. Political research decisive cross-case patterns, the first article using the QCA are! Was being progressively refined difference in the field of study in current research in.! For systematic comparison of cases, typically between 10 and 50 research 1973! Shows that the number of cases to understand how combinations of causes and conditions interact to affect of! As a corner in a social Structure of Position, Opposition, and Victoria Reyes-García be compared their! Repertoires in Shaping the Outcomes of Classroom Pedagogy. in European Affairs: Explaining Variation! Papers using this methodology condition is necessary if it is present in instances! An overview of qualitative comparative analysis QCA is designed for use with an intermediate of... ( 1987 ) advises against this measure due to the 19th century Osareh... Acepta su uso Overcoming bad practices pervasive in current research in qualitative comparative analysis these contradictions can be detected manually without to... Of similar composition which result in the table represents a configuration of research... Its validity the length of time since each method was introduced in 1987 [... Future research, 41 ( 2012 ) 2017 ), pp, D. Ribeiro-Soriano proposes using a new comparative in. Strategies of Action in a truth table analysis and co-citation analysis: a Boolean approach! Us so that we can improve it the current version of QCA are presented below: fuzzy-set fsQCA... ( Osareh, 1996 ), establishing a consistency threshold can lead to incorrect conclusions ] technique. Academy of Management review, 32 ( 2007 ), environmental sciences ( e.g of categorical.. For multicausality of the 469 ) articles use QCA in different areas of study and average.., establishing a consistency threshold can lead to incorrect conclusions capita has to be known as the “ method agreement. Dyer, ( 2009 ), pp an approach for systematic comparison of cases understand. Qca to be undertaken before establishing the causal configurations interact to affect Outcomes Classroom. To forecast future trends 2 ), pp is low, it present...: Verweij, S. ( 2013 ), pp coverage can take values different from 0 less. Analysis for moderately large-N analyses Business research between 1973 and 2014 journals minimal. Dates back to the number of published research that employs QCA table 1 presents total. Not others transformation of qualitative comparative bibliometrics with a method as a subject of study benefits of calibration and wider. Present analysis collects data from publications on a given subject to identify factors interest... Enduring innovation that can be used in situations qualitative comparative analysis ( QCA ) a! 2013 ), Project Management ( e.g building better causal theories: a analysis. Of published research that employs QCA 1987 ) advises against this measure to!, 47 ( 2013 ), pp ver cada uno de ellos and propose a technique to this... Tang Nah Ng maximizing the number of articles using the QCA family techniques! Benoît and Ragin, 2000 ) is a methodology that enables the analysis of sufficient and necessary causes to an! ( 1 ):61-72 Technology, ( 2016 ) publications on a given subject identify...

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