This page has been viewed 810 times (0 via redirect). The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is headquartered at White Eagle, near Ponca City, Oklahoma. United States Department of Commerce, Frederick B. Dent, Secretary. They were quartered in tipis they had brought with them, as no other provisions had been made by the government for their accommodation. James O. Dorsey, an unusual large scale conflict took place between the Ponca and their old enemies the Pawnee. The other is the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. The agent, angry at their lack of cooperation, then left the Ponca chiefs, some of whom were advanced in years and ill. Upon arriving, he learned that a party of 30 Ponca men had been returning home from a friendly visit with the Oglala Lakota to the north, when they were attacked by a group of Brule or Sicangu Lakota. The Ponca tribe separated from the Omaha tribe in the early 18th century as they were migrating west from the Great Lakes region. This was believed to be a means of self-preservation for the now smaller tribe of Ponca, whose lands were in-between the Lakota and Pawnee territories. This document titled, “Constitution and Bylaws of the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma” was registered with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. The CDC released new guidelines on Wednesday, December 3, changing the quarantine guidelines for close contacts. The Ponca Tribe was approached by a government agent from the Indian Bureau, who selected 8 chiefs to accompany him to Oklahoma to look over several alternative sites for a new Ponca Reservation there. The long march took a heavy toll on the tribe, over half of whom were women and children. Involvement in this warfare continued to reduce the population of the Ponca. DIED. Treaties. Federal troops were called in to enforce the removal orders, and by May 1877, the Ponca had begun their forced migration to “the hot country.”. By August of 1881, only 26,236 acres in Knox County, Nebraska were returned to the Ponca near Niobrara, and by 1882, there were 170 Ponca living there. 3.1K likes. Mr. & Mrs. John Allen, Apr. Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Ponca City, Oklahoma. If you have additional information about this cemetery, please e-mail area coordinator. The Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma is a tribal government that is comprised of 3783 members now located 5 miles south of Ponca City in the White Eagle Community. Cemetery on left side. This is the site of its former reservation and land allotted to 73 individual tribal members in 1891. Fancy Dance Casino is owned and operated by The Ponca Enterprise Gaming, LLC (PEG), a subsidiary of the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. In the spring of the following year, in 1859, the Ponca tried to make their customary tribal buffalo hunt, but encountered a combined party of Sicangu Lakota, Oglala Lakota and Cheyenne at the headwaters of the Elkhorn River. Among other things, through an inexplicable and almost criminal blunder, the treaty established the boundaries of the “great Sioux (Lakota) Reservation” which included the 96,000 acres that was the Ponca Reservation. As time progressed, the Ponca and other semi-sedentary tribes along the Upper Missouri River, such as the Omaha, Arikara, Pawnee, Mandan and Hidatsa, who were attached to their earthlodge villages and cornfields, were no match for the nomadic Dakota and Lakota, who were very mobile, well-armed and always knew the exact strength and precise location of these tribes. My name is Nadia Lynn Kent. Later during the 1600s, the Ponca, Omaha, Osage and Kansas that went upriver along the Mississippi, stayed for a time near present day Osage and Gasconde Counties in Missouri, west of present day St. Louis. Two Bulls – son of Buffalo Bull (he becomes head chief when his father dies in September 1846. 253-254). When the agent returned to Nebraska, Standing Bearand other tribal members signe… A service provided by, https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/index.php?title=Ponca_Indian_Reservation_(Oklahoma)&oldid=2953599, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. By 1770, the Omaha had migrated to a site on Omaha Creek to build a fortified earth lodge village by themselves which they called “Big Village” in present day Thurston County, Nebraska. Despite their original reservation having been established in 1858, the Ponca suffered decades of broken treaties, a lack of financial support from the U.S. Government, and ongoing attacks by the neighboring Sioux, with whom they were sworn enemies. 36-39) by 1835, a cholera epidemic killed an estimated 10% of the Ponca Tribe's population, further reducing their number to approximately 700 persons (Howard, 1965, p. 24). When Bear Shield, the eldest 12 year old son of Chief Standing Bear died in 1878, the Chief was unwilling to bury him in this strange country. Cession 628. However, the government made no effort to correct this fantastic error, or to protect the Ponca as promised in the treaty of 1858. Meanwhile, the Ponca hunting party from the Gray Blanket village ran into the fleeing Pawnee and after an intense running fight, killed them to a man. The chiefs were then forced to make the journey home in the middle of winter, without money, food or an interpreter. Later it is believed, the Ponca returned to build a village with the Omaha and the Iowa at the mouth of the White River. 3.1 Correspondence and Census; 4 … Welcome to the Ponca Tribe Archives of the state of Oklahoma! When the 8 Ponca chiefs reached their homeland, they found that since the Ponca had refused to go to Indian Territory of their own free will, a government order had been issued on 12 April 1877 to force their removal. This land was part of the Indian Territory purchased from the Cherokee by the U.S. Government in the treaty of 1866. United States Indigenous Peoples of the US Oklahoma, United States Genealogy Indigenous Peoples of Oklahoma Ponca Indian Reservation (Oklahoma) The Ponca Indian Reservation was located in Oklahoma. Of the 3,581 enrolled tribal members, 3000 live within the state of Oklahoma. Also, 350 acres had been planted with corn and other vegetables (Foreman, 1946, pp. While the Mormons were there, 9 Ponca chiefs and sub-chiefs arrived on the 8th of August 1846, intending to seek peace negotiations with the Pawnee. The Ponca Restoration Bill giving the Northern Ponca federal recognition was introduced to the U.S. Senate, passed, and was signed into law by President Bush on 31 October 1990. To commemorate the victory over the Pawnee, Chief Smoke Maker's newborn son was carried to the battlefield by an old woman and caused him to put his feet on two of the Pawnee corpses, whereupon he was given the name Non-ba-a-ton meaning “treads on two” (Dorsey, 1890, pp. These Ponca chiefs were documented by the Mormons as: There were many Mormons who wrote journals about their life and enjoyable experiences among the Ponca. Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. This policy effected some 109 tribes and bands including 13,263 Indian people and 1,365,801 acres of trust land. Road will end. Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma Tribal Historic Preservation Office; Keeping tribal members up to date on the land office happenings for the Ponca Tribal Land Office. (Duncan, 1997, p. 59) the Ponca then made first contact with French traders in 1794. In 2018, The Ponca Tribe of Indians Oklahoma (Southern Poncas) has 3,783 enrolled members. The information furnished to Fletcher by the Office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs showed the Wa-in-xu-de or “Gray Blanket” village was said to have a population of 377 persons, the Hu-Bthon or “Fish Smell” village had 144 persons, and the “Point” village had 248 persons. By 1906, just one year prior to Oklahoma statehood, the total Ponca population was 833, divided as 570 Southern Ponca in Oklahoma and 263 Northern Ponca in Nebraska. In 1875 a Ponca agent visited President Ulysses S. Grant to discuss moving the Ponca to the Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma. Chief Standing Bear's daughter Prairie Flower, and his wife Shines White, were among those who died along the way. Turn right on Riverview Road for about 1/2 mile. Historical and archaeological evidence verifies that the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa as a group, then traveled west to build a fortified village on the Big Sioux River, north of Sioux Falls, South Dakota (Howard, 1965, p. 15). The Northern Ponca now operates under a constitution consistent with the Indian Reorganization Act of 18 June 1934. Food was also scarce as they had been on the move during the summers of 1877 and 1878 and had not been able to cultivate any crops. As a result of the 2000 census, it was determined that there were 4,858 individuals in the United States that identified themselves as being Ponca alone, or Ponca in combination with another tribe or race. During the 1970s members of the Northern Ponca Tribe, unwilling to accept their status as a terminated tribe, initiated the process of restoration to federal recognition. Another location was found for them on the west bank of the Arkansas River, covering both sides of the Salt Fork River in North-Central Oklahoma near what is now Ponca City. Main article: Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma After the 1877 forced relocation onto the Quapaw Reservation in Indian Territory, the tribe moved west to their own lands along the Arkansas and Salt Fork Rivers. 211-213). December 24, 2020 By Lana Van Cleave. The Ponca were suffering from malaria in this new country and many died from it. Established -- 15 August 1876 Agency (BIA) -- Ponca Agency Principal tribes -- Ponca Population --Contents. These figures total 769, which differs from Fletcher's statement, “the total population of the tribe at that time was 733.” Fletcher further states that “there were eight chiefs, each of whom had his band,” and she gives a breakdown of the population among each as follows: When these cited figures above are added, the total comes to 600 persons accounted for. Smoke Maker – a chief of the 2nd rank (son of the chief of the same name who was killed by the Sicangu Lakota in 1824. [1] Current administration LAST NAME. Welcome to the sovereign and self-governing lands of The Ponca Tribe of Indians Of Oklahoma. Editor’s Note: This article is part of the multi-part series “Exiled to Indian Country” about the exile of Native Americans. In the fall of 1855, according to an account recorded by Rev. Their tribal jurisdictional area includes parts of Kay and Noble counties. The Ponca Indian Reservation was located in Oklahoma. However, by the time they entered the camp, the Pawnee had fled. The combined party attacked the Ponca hunting camp, killing a Ponca sub-chief named Heavy Cloud and 14 others in retaliation for selling their lands to the U.S. Government the previous year (Howard, 1965, p. 31). It was not until 9 July 1877 that the party passed through Baxter Springs in Southeastern Kansas and crossed the line into the Indian Territory on the lands of the Quapaw Tribe. However, they were vulnerable from attack by larger nomadic tribes as evidenced by an event that took place in 1824. Ponca City is a city in Kay County in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. From this time, the Ponca have been divided into the Northern Ponca of Nebraska and the Southern Ponca of Oklahoma (Howard, 1965, p. 38). The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, also known as the Ponca Nation, is one of two federally recognized tribes of Ponca people. The Kay County town of Tonkawa is headquarters for the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma, where a museum preserves the tribe’s cultural heritage. As a result, two prominent attorneys decided that a writ of habeas corpus, asking for 14th Amendment protection, could prevent the Ponca from being forcibly returned to their reservation in Oklahoma. Of the 30 Ponca, only 12 returned alive. This is a list of federally recognized Native American Tribes in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.Oklahoma has the third largest numbers of tribes, behind Alaska and California. Then a grand council was established to reach an agreement on the terms of the peace, and rules of war and hunting. The more powerful Sioux, also known as the Lakota, encroached on their land base. Occasionally, small elements of the Lakota would sometimes raid the Ponca as well, taking horses or stealing corn they had grown. It was not until after the United States military subdued the Sauk in 1834 during the Black Hawk War, that the Ponca and the Omaha gained some relief. Smallpox and other introduced Eurasian diseases took a heavy toll of the tribe repeatedly in the 18th and 19th centuries, as they had no immunity to the new diseases. The group that traveled down river earned the name u-ga-xpa or Quapaw, meaning “with the current” or “downstream.” The Quapaw continued south along the east bank of the Mississippi River into what is now Arkansas, and these descriptive names were already in place by the time Hernando de Soto met the Quapaw Tribe when he crossed the Mississippi River in 1541 (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 36) and (Baird, 1989, p. 14). The Poncas, who were allotted in 1890, saw their land go to non-Indian settlers through a September 1893 land run, an event that its Euro-American participants and their descendants celebrated. Operating as usual. The city was named after the Ponca tribe. The Ponca Tribe today has about 4,200 members with many still settled in Ponca City. Drum – principle chief of Fish Smell Village. The Ponca chiefs refused to select any of the sites and after informing the government agent of their decision, requested to be allowed to return home to Niobrara, Nebraska. In the summer of 1846, an advanced party of 400 Mormons were heading west to find a route through the Rocky Mountains after being driven from their homes in Nauvoo, Illinois earlier that year. FIRST MI. By the time the Lewis and Clark expedition reached the Ponca village in September 1804, on the lower side of Ponca Creek, about two miles from the Missouri River, the Ponca had become quite familiar with Europeans. 1 History; 2 Records; 3 Agency Records. "Oklahoma Indian Reservations," Handbook of Indians North of Mexico, by Frederick Webb Hodge, Ⓒ 2020 by Intellectual Reserve, Inc. All rights reserved. Because the Ponca were not to leave their reservation without permission, Standing Bear and his small group of followers were labeled as a renegade band. Iron Whip – principle chief of Gray Blanket village (brother of two Bulls). At the direction of Brigham Young, who stayed with the main group of Mormons in the Council Bluffs/Omaha area, this advance party traveled along the north side of the Platte River to a deserted Pawnee village on the Loup River near present day Genoa, Nebraska (Tibbitts, 2003, p. 1). They migrated up the Des Moines River to its headwaters in what is now Minnesota and built a village for a time near the pipestone quarries. Of the 3,787 enrolled tribal members, 3000 live within the state of Oklahoma. Little Chief – son of Smoke Maker (has hereditary leadership rites. She was a Ponca Elder who always showed compassion to others. Copyright © 2018 Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma is one of two federally recognized tribes of the Ponca people. The Ponca were divided into two hunting groups, those from the Gray Blanket village and those from the Fish Smell village. 580.763.0135; gail.kent@ponca-nsn.gov; 198 White Eagle Dr, Ponca City, Ok. 74601 Prior to 1500 AD, this collective group traveled from their original home in the Southeast, down the Ohio River to its mouth (Dorsey, 1886, p. 218). 20 White Eagle DrivePonca City, OK 74601(580) 762-8104Monday - Friday 8:00am - 5:00pm, List of Contact Numbers below for departments, and programs within the Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma. 08/25/2018 . Then, figures taken in 1937 showed a total population of Ponca was 1,222, divided as 825 Southern Ponca in Oklahoma and 397 Northern Ponca in Nebraska. Present Day Tribes: Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. These guidelines were adopted by the Oklahoma … Membership to the tribe requires a 1/8 minimum blood quantum. Over the next eight years, the Ponca repeatedly appealed to the U.S. Government for protection and assistance. The case of Standing Bear vs. Crook was brought before Judge Elmer S. Dundy in U.S. District Court on 30 April 1879, and by 12 May 1879 Judge Dundy had filed his now famous decision in favor of Chief Standing Bear holding that “an Indian is a person the same as a white man, and similarly entitled to the protection of the constitution.” Standing Bear and his followers were set free, and he then continued back to the Ponca tribal burial grounds on the Missouri bluffs where he buried his son with tribal honors. Gen. George Crook was then given orders by Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz to arrest the run-a-ways and return them to Indian Territory. It was in this same area that Omaha and Ponca oral history say that the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa first encountered the Marinara, who at that time occupied territory in Northeastern Nebraska. These figures total 769, which differs from Fletcher's statement, “the total population of the tribe at that time was 733.” Fletcher further states that “there were eight chiefs, each of whom had his band,” and she gives a breakdown of the population among each as follows: According to Alice Fletcher in The Omaha Tribe (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 51) by November 1874, the total population of the Ponca was counted as 733 persons, divided into three villages along the Niobrara River. Then, according to John John Champe (cited by Wood, 1959, p. 10), the Omaha and Iowa continued moving further south to build a village along Bow Creek near present day Wynot, Nebraska in Cedar County about 1735. 377-383) (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 54). Keep the Poore family in prayer during this time. In 1825 another treaty with the Ponca was made, in which the Ponca acknowledged that they lived within the “territorial limits of the United States,” thereby recognizing the supremacy of the larger force of the U.S. Government. § 2701 et seq., requiring the state of Oklahoma and Oklahoma's governor to negotiate a compact which would permit the tribe to operate a Class III gaming facility on the reservation. The Ponca Chief Iron Whip indicated the best route for the Mormons to follow when they continued on their journey west in April of 1847. Location - Southwest of Ponca City~~~Corner of Waverly Street and old Highway 60, go south about 3 miles on Waverly to Riverview Road. Cut off from the buffalo and fearful of leaving their villages to farm outlying fields, the Ponca were often at the point of starvation. In July of 1878, the Ponca were moved again to this new parcel of 101,894 acres, and it was set apart as the Ponca Reservation. They established winter camps along the Arkansas River, and they continued to practice their tribal customs. The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is headquartered in Ponca City, Oklahoma. However, the larger tribe of Pawnee frequently made war on the Ponca when their northern allies were not around. Discouraged, homesick and hopeless, the Ponca now numbering 681, found themselves on the lands of strangers, in the middle of a hot summer, with no crops nor prospects for any (Howard, 1965, p. 35). By 1950 the U.S. Government formulated a policy which called for the dissolving and termination of all Indian Tribes. It was then that the first treaty was made between the Ponca and the U.S. to establish “perpetual peace and friendship” (Howard, 1965, p. 27). References to the Ponca historical records include the variations la Pong, Panka and Punka. In 1936 the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act paved the way for the Southern Ponca in Oklahoma … By 20 October 1880, when agent A. R.  Satterwhite filed a report for the Ponca Agency in Indian Territory, the population of the Ponca in Oklahoma was now only 530 under the leadership of the following men: White EagleBlack CrowRush Into BattleThe ChiefBig BullBig SoldierChild Chief. On behalf of the Ponca Business Committee and Ponca Tribe, we extend... our condolences for the loss of a well respected veteran and elder of the Ponca Tribe. Ponca City had a population of 25,387 at the time of the 2010 census. Then the Ponca migrated by themselves, downstream along the Missouri River, then pushed westward and settled in Nebraska near the Niobrara River. This page was last edited on 19 August 2017, at 19:57. The Iowa continued further south almost to the Platte River, making a village near present day Florence, Nebraska in Douglas County. 5. The name Ponca is a combination of Siouan dialects and has a symbolic connotation of 'sacred head.' By March 1879, Standing Bear and his followers had reached the Omaha Reservation in Nebraska, and the Omaha Chief Iron Eyes took pity on them, and offered food and asylum. All Rights Reserved. In 1876, the U.S. Government formulated a policy to consolidate as many tribes as possible in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Poverty and disease would continue to take its toll on the Ponca over the years, however their populations steadily increased. During the war of 1812, the Ponca and the Omaha allied with the United States, while the Sauk, who held territories northeast of the Omaha, allied with the British. Historic Tribes: Ponka. The Omaha Daily Herald Newspaper publicized the plight of the Ponca group, and it was carried by many other newspapers across the country. 142nd Annual Ponca Celebration will still be going on today. It is believed that it was here, prior to 1673, that the Omaha’s sacred cedar pole was cut, an important religious object, and afterward the Omaha assigned each clan and sub-clan its particular customs and duties (Dorsey, 1884, pp. Traditionally, peoples of both tribes have spoken the Omaha-Ponca language, part of the Siouan language family. Their tribal jurisdictional area includes parts of Kay and Noble counties. Soon, the Ponca learned the value of being the middlemen in trade between Europeans and those tribes along the Upper Missouri, and in 1795 they began the practice of stopping and raiding trading craft as they went up the Missouri River (Howard, 1965, p. 25). Dissatisfied with the reservation system established after the Civil War, reformers and politicians decided to assimilate American Indians by forcing private ownership of land. According to Alice Fletcher in The Omaha Tribe (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 51) by November 1874, the total population of the Ponca was counted as 733 persons, divided into three villages along the Niobrara River. I am the great granddaughter of Lucy and Garland Kent, Sr., daughter of Curtis and Francis Primeaux and sister of Lexia and Alec Kent. Throughout the 1700s the Ponca were referenced in various maps and literature as living between Ponca Creek and the Niobrara River in North-central Nebraska. Although Congress granted them a reservation in this area, the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie granted their reservation to the Lakota. At first they warred with the Marinara, but later a peace was determined by performing the wa-wan or calumet ceremony. It seems that both tribes were out on their tribal buffalo hunts and the encounter was accidental. The full-bloods formed a tipi village, while … In 1936 the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act paved the way for the Southern Ponca in Oklahoma to create a constitution and by-laws still in use today. They settled in present-day Nebraska and South Dakota. According to Dorsey (1884, pp. Ponca City Public Schools . This archaeological site known as “Ponca Fort,” has been dated to circa 1700, and closely resembles the middle Mississippian fortified towns found in Ohio which date to 800 through 1550. During this time, the Omaha and Iowa pushed further south along the Missouri River to build a village at Covington, Nebraska in present day Dakota County. Peter Wilson, acting on behalf of Maj. Benjamin O’Fallon, visited a group of Ponca at the mouth of the Niobrara River. White Eagle – son of Iron Whip (has hereditary leadership rites). 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